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Blast Injury
Laboratory Scale Shock Tubes
Wound Ballistics
External Ballistics
Internal Ballistics
Biomechanics of TBI
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Biomechanics of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs when the brain is subjected to large impact forces, accelerations or pressures. Past BTG work focused on high-strain rate events that occur on relatively fast time scales (< 1 millisecond). Current and future BTG research focuses on forming accurate risk assessment criteria and TBI prevention by developing a unified, quantitative understanding of TBI risk across strain rates and time scales ranging from low-speed (< 10 m/s) long time (0.1 seconds) events such as falls and collisions to high-speed (> 400 m/s) short time scale (< 1 millisecond) events such as blast injury and ballistic events. We are working to develop accurate risk assessment criteria in terms of threshold forces, pressures, stresses, acceleration, energy, impulse, and rise times for these quantities. This will facilitate improvements in protective equipment and post-exposure risk assessment (dosimetry), as well as provide new tools to measure performance of existing protective equipment and effectiveness of systems in service of national defense and homeland security.


Working toward exposure thresholds for blast-induced traumatic brain injury: thoracic and acceleration mechanisms.

A thoracic mechanism of mild traumatic brain injury due to blast pressure waves.

Links between traumatic brain injury and ballistic pressure waves originating in the thoracic cavity and extremities.

Relative incapacitation contributions of pressure wave and wound channel in the Marshall and Sanow data set.

Sheep collisions: The good, the bad and the TBI


External Links


2011 2nd Research Symposium on Traumatic Brain Injury, U. Maryland

2010 27th Army Science Conference Agenda with links to presentations

1998 Rehabilitation of the Injured Combatant, Chapter 6. Traumatic Brain Injury

1991 Textbook of Military Medicine: Conventional Warfare - Ballistic, Blast and Burn Injuries